The 2009 post-election unrest marked an unprecedented event in the history of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The chapter focuses on the conceptions or imaginaries of governance as shared or contested visions of the Islamic Republic. The socialization of the Islamic Republic served the needs of the war period, when unemployment remained high and social demands for goods required a stringent system of distribution of resources. The new economic regime also gave way to the expansion of the public sector, which added a new level of corruption and a depletion of state resources. Despite increasing control of the military-security apparatus since the rise of Ahmadinejad, post-revolutionary governance remains contingent on power struggles that continue to transform according to shifts within elite factionalism and state-society relations. Yet in many ways the state also continues to produce a stable framework for managing elite and societal changes in lieu of internal and external challenges.