Attending and listening
The core of this chapter is the presentation and discussion of the microskills approach to counseling, originally developed at Colorado State University in the late 1960s (Ivey, Normington, Miller, Morrill, & Haase, 1968). As elaborated over the years, especially by Allen Ivey (Ivey, Ivey, & Zalaquett, 2010), the microskills model identifies a hierarchy of skills, beginning with basic building blocks such as ethics, competence and wellness, and culminating in the ability to integrate skills from theories of psychology into a personal counseling style. In this chapter, we focus on the basic skills of attending the nonverbal and body language attributes that signal a readiness to listen, and listening, which can be further broken down into such basic skills as questioning, paraphrasing, and reflecting. This approach has been influential in the training of counselors, psychologists, social workers, psychiatrists, and others in the helping professions (Egan, 2007a). These microskills are critical to effective sport psychology consulting.