Development of neuromuscular coordination with implications in motor control: Eleftherios Kellis and Vassilia Hatzitaki
During biological development the factors that contribute to physical fitness mature, and performance in exercise tests (strength, speed and endurance) as well as complex sport skills steadily improves. A major contributor to this improvement is neuromuscular development, which refers to the maturation of both neural and muscular systems and includes their integration. Selected issues of this integration with respect to growth and maturation are examined in this chapter. Particularly, the effects of growth on activation patterns of muscles either in isolation or in pairs during single joint maximum strength production are explored. This is followed by the presentation of neuromuscular development during force-control tasks. Next, we focus on the development of muscle synergies required for the production of purposeful multi-joint actions. Finally, we examine how the development of sensory and higher brain systems contributes to neuromuscular coordination during the performance of multi-joint daily life actions.