A Global Perspective on Men’s Health and Future Directions in Research
Gender-speciﬁ c approaches to health and health care recognize the different experiences of women and men, and of various populations of women and men. As yet, relatively little is known about men’s genderspeciﬁ c health care needs. This chapter outlines precepts for developing new theoretical paradigms and research models, and offers direction for social scientists and practitioners in the nascent ﬁ eld of men’s health. In it, I advocate interdisciplinary approaches that explore how environmental, biological, sociocultural, psychological, and behavioral factors interact to mediate the physical and mental health of men and boys. I recommend that these approaches apply social structural analyses, examine geographic and cultural contexts, integrate recent theory and research on masculinity, and develop relational paradigms that recognize dynamic intersections of various social factors. I further suggest that the multinational nature of the health of men requires new global community health models for addressing the convergence of micro, meso, and macro health determinants at international, national, community, and individual levels.