State approaches to Muslim integration in Russia, France and Britain in comparative perspective
State-Muslim relations in Russia are often examined as a distinct, self-contained ﬁ eld of research. 1 Similarly, many comparative studies of state policies and debates on Muslim integration in Europe tend to focus on Muslim migrants, with a particular emphasis on Britain and France, and hardly include the Russian dimension. 2 Occasional comparisons are made with Muslim populations in the United States or Australia. 3 This chapter argues that it is useful to compare the Russian policy of Muslim integration with similar policies in Britain and France. Not only does such a study reveal particular differences of national approach in line with historical and cultural traditions, but it also brings out a greater degree of often-overlooked policy convergence.