Africa and the ‘second new economy’: how can Africa beneﬁt from ICTs for a sustainable socio-economic development?
After J.H. Boeke (1953) and A. Lewis (1954), in 2003, former President Thabo Mbeki submits the idea of two economies co-existing in South Africa: a ﬁrst-world economy (ﬁrst economy) and a third-world economy (second economy). The ﬁrst one is ‘an advanced, sophisticated economy, based on skilled labour, which is becoming more globally competitive’. The second one is ‘a mainly informal, marginalised, unskilled economy, populated by the unemployed and those unemployable in the formal sector’ (Mbeki, 2003a; Mbeki, 2003b). The relationship between these two economies varies between deconnection and a trickle-down eﬀect.