South African Post-Apartheid Realities and Citizenship Education
Racial segregation and apartheid fragmented South Africa’s population for centuries. A common citizenship did not exist. Formal legislation legitimised racial classifi cation, residential separation, denial of the right of some groups to landownership, segregated schooling with differential expenditure for different groups and denial of the right of all black groups to vote in national elections. In 1994, this exclusive system fi nally changed into an inclusive democracy with equal formal rights for everyone. However, the legacy of racial domination continues, both in the everyday unequal existence as well as in the minds of most people. How education for active, participatory citizenship can transform this historical reality into a new better life for liberated people has defi ed solutions so far. Increasing evidence suggests that new non-racial injustices are even harder to combat than the morally discredited previous racial system.