The cultural economy and the re-layering of space in the city
Second, and especially in East Asia, the state has been intimately associated with the economic development of the country, and the concept of developmental state been largely associated with the remarkable industrial development of Pacific Asia. Implicit in this task has been the nature of the state-society contract, where the state’s role in economic development has created improved livelihood and job market conditions that enabled a legitimacy in the eyes of society. In East and Southeast Asia, the organizations of the state have been also concentrated in its largest cities. One impact of this concentration, as observed by Evers and Korff (2000: 17), is that “the city becomes a symbol of the state ideology when urbanism is one factor for access to positions of power and when the state’s organizations are based on the city”. Thus, as suggested by Evers and Korff, the built environments of Asian key cities have also become ways in which the state expresses its developmentalist ideology and a way in which it gains its legitimacy.