Film festivals in Asian cities
Over the past thirty years or so, film festivals have become a visible manifestation of celebration of world cinema. Within less than half a century they have spread in their current organizational form from the West to all over the world. In some regions, like Europe or Asia, they have often been under the patronage of national and local governments and directly administered in cultural and media-industry policy portfolios; in others, like North America, the private non-profit form prevails. The festival population of about 3,500 organizations ranges from very well-supported organizations to many informally organized and low-budget projects, consisting of a mix of more formal organizations supported by local philanthropy, tax subsidy and industry sponsorship as well as the more spontaneous and sporadically occurring events, all of which cover nearly the whole spectrum of cinematic art expressions. The most intensive as well as globally extensive population growth has occurred after the millennium, a phase that roughly coincides with the growth of a global civil society but also the urban governments’ embrace of cultural and creative industries as potential economic growth sectors (Hesmondhalgh 2002; Scott 2004).