This chapter examines the merits and validity of measuring the educational value of computers using conventional tests of academic achievement. I examine transformative uses of computers in schools, and how curriculum design may be reconsidered in such a context. This is illustrated by three examples of transformation through IT, in literacy practices, curriculum content and classroom pedagogy. The examples justify radical curriculum change. One way of achieving these changes is by envisioning new learning outcomes, that can only realistically be achieved through pupils using computers. The chapter concludes by considering ways forward and associated implications for research.