This chapter traces theoretical constructs that attest to the paradigm shift, albeit gradual, from techno-centric to more socio-technical approaches, through social constructivism to social cognitive theories as applied in education. The author argues that transformative applications of IT that could lead developing nations to go beyond traditional uses of these technologies in education practice would need fundamental changes in the way education is conceived and delivered, and the way developmental research is conducted. If appropriately used, IT tools have the potential to optimise learner-centred pedagogical methods that ascribe to higher order metaphors of learning; Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), Developmental Work Research (DWR) and Change Laboratory (CL) conceptual frameworks have rendered valuable outcomes. The World Information Technology Forum (WITFOR) pilot project in Botswana is cited to exemplify the praxis of these frameworks. The chapter focuses on a socio-cognitive approach that emphasises the socio-cultural nature of human cognition.