The tool kit of EU–Central Asian cooperation
In its relations to Central Asia the EU can draw from two different sets of instruments. On the one hand there are instruments that are implemented unilaterally without discussing them with the target states (e.g. sanctions, declarations or démarches).1 The same holds true for humanitarian aid: even though implementation requires cooperation with the target governments it is insofar a unilateral instrument as the delivery of aid is on the EU’s discretion. On the other hand, there are bilateral instruments specifically targeted at fostering cooperation between the EU and Central Asia such as TACIS (Technical Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States) and EIDHR (European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights) based on regulations and Partnership and Cooperation Agreements (PCAs). Trade agreements other than PCAs will be excluded from this analysis as they are regulations in a very specific field of economic cooperation without defining any kind of broader framework for cooperation. By outlining the tool kit of EU-Central Asian cooperation each instrument will be analysed in regard to its goals, implementation scheme, (indicative) financial allocations and, where possible, the impact it has had so far. Instruments will be analysed in chronological order of their launching2, thus allowing for an outline of the general development in EUCentral Asian cooperation.