Conclusions and further reflections: The logic of authoritarianism in the Caspian petro-states
This book has analysed the nexus of petroleum, governance and foreign policy in three semi-authoritarian states surrounding the Caspian Sea: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Part I focused on the domestic aspects of petroleum wealth, while Part II addressed the implications of petroleum for external relationships. It is our view that there are important linkages between the two parts. In particular, increased cooperation between like-minded authoritarian states at the international level may reinforce the authoritarian tendencies at the domestic level, and vice versa. The desire for leaders of petroleum-rich states to stay in power creates incentives for pursuing close relations with other authoritarian states that are unlikely to meddle in domestic affairs.