Appearances and Sources of Process Dynamics: The Case of Infrastructure Development in the UK and the Netherlands
The previous chapters have presented the relationship between complexity theory and public administration (Chapter 2) as well as ideas on how complexity can be investigated and understood (Chapter 3). This chapter aims to contribute to an understanding of how processes in governance systems develop, generating intended results as well as unintended problems. Implementation problems commonly occur in governance systems. In the governance of infrastructure projects-the empirical focus of this chapter-previous studies have already indicated that well over 50 per cent of all infrastructure projects suffer from cost overruns and delays (Flyvbjerg et al., 2003).