Careers in Spain
According to Schwartz’s framework of cultural orientations, Spain is a decidedly egalitarian culture, which means that people value others’ welfare, social justice and traditions. This is reflected in Spain, like most countries in Western Europe, having a universal and free public health care system and a generous public pension system in which workers may receive up to 100 percent of their taxable income. In the past, however, equal opportunities for men and women have not always been granted. An example of such lack of equality is the 57th article of the Civil Code, which was known as permiso marital, which forbade women from employment, owning property and traveling without the consent of their husband. The law was revoked in 1975 and, although this was not so long ago, Spain has been proactive in broadening equal opportunities for men and women. In 2007, the Spanish parliament passed the Law of Equality (Ley de Igualdad), legislation that requires at least 40 percent of political candidates to be women, encourages major companies to promote females in management and decision-making roles, implements the right for women to reduce their working hours to care for children, and introduced a paternity leave policy for fathers of up to ten paid working days, which will be augmented to four weeks in 2011 (El País, 2009).