chapter  4
52 Pages

Maternal smoking, genes and adolescent brain and body: The Saguenay Youth Study

ByT. PAUS, Z. PAUSOVA, M. ABRAHAMOWICZ, J. ALMERIGI, N. ARBOUR, M. BERNARD, D. GAUDET, P. HANZALEK, P. HAMET, A. C. EVANS, M. KRAMER, L. LABERGE, S. LEAL, G. LEONARD, J. LERNER, R. M. LERNER, J. MATHIEU, M. PERRON, B. PIKE, A. PITIOT, L. RICHER, J. R. SÉGUIN, C. SYME, R. E. TREMBLAY, S. VEILLETTE AND K. WATKINS

The prevalence of cigarette smoking in pregnant women varies widely in different countries (Ebrahim, Decoufle, & Palakathodi, 2000; Kendrick & Merritt, 1996). In the United States, for example, the average prevalence was 16.3% in 1984 and decreased to 11.8% in 1994 (Ebrahim, Decoufle, & Palakthodi, 2000). In England, maternal smoking during pregnancy is less common (10%, The Stationery Office, 2002). In Canada, 25% of women aged 15 years and above are current smokers; of these, 58% smoked during their most recent pregnancy (Health Canada, 1995). In the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (Canada), 23.7% of mothers reported smoking cigarettes during pregnancy (Connor & McIntyre, 1998); the highest prevalence of prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (PEMCS) was found during teenage pregnancies (50%). In Quebec, we found that 25% of expectant mothers smoked cigarettes throughout pregnancy and that 24% reported smoking daily 5 months after giving birth; these findings are based on a population sample of 2300 mothers who gave birth during 1997-1998 (Japel, Tremblay & McDuff, 2000).