Community policy and community work
In eighteenth-century London, it became popular to ‘transport’ criminals to Australia and other parts of the world. The remarkable thing was that criminality rates were hardly decreasing in London and the criminality rates in Australia were quite low (Hughes 1987). It seems to be that expelling criminals does not solve the problem of criminality. In the ghettos of the modern US about 90 per cent of African-American boys are accused of (supposed) criminal behaviour (Wacquant 1999). This is not due to a genetic disorder but most likely due to the fact that they grow up in places where you can hardly escape being involved in criminality. Disturbed communities provoke disturbed behaviour and disturbed relationships. Cultural patterns do have an impact on the mind or habitus of people (Bourdieu 1984). Individuals interact with other individuals and systems and the entirety of interactions or patterns can be supportive or disturbing for those individuals.