Jerome Bruner rightly occupies a position as “the grand old man” of American learning and cognitive research and theory. For more than half a century he has been active as a researcher, developer, and debater of learning and education. In the late 1940s, he made detailed studies on perception and thinking. During the 1950s, his studies of cognition were an important basis for what was later termed “cognitive science.” After the so-called “Sputnik-shock” in 1957, when Russia sent up the fi rst satellite, Bruner was appointed chairman of the scientifi c commission which was set up to fundamentally reconstruct the American school system, and his books The Process of Education, Toward a Theory of Instruction and The Relevance of Education laid the groundwork for the concept of science-centered curriculum. Later he scrutinized the concepts of “mind” and “meaning,” and as late as 1996, at the age of 82, he published The Culture of Education, which summarizes the broad understanding of learning and education as cultural processes he gradually developed. This chapter is made up of the two fi rst programmatic sections of that book, which probably will stand as the most durable work of his vast production.