Home–school collaboration in two Chinese societies: Hong Kong and Macao
Parent involvement has become so prevalent worldwide that it has been referred to as an ‘institutional standard’, as many schools ensure they encourage parents to be more engaged in their children’s education (Grolnick et al. 1997; Lareau 1989; Vincent and Tomlinson 1997). Growing evidence suggested that a concord between home, and school, and parental involvement in their children’s education in both contexts is in children’s best educational interests (Edwards and Alldred 2000; Epstein 1992; Epstein et al. 1997; Ho 1997). Asian societies including Singapore, Hong Kong and Macao caught up with this parental involvement movement in the 1990s (Ho 2007; Ho and Kwong 2006; Manzon 2004).