Explaining the policy impact of the 1991 and the 2000 ﬁrework blasts in the Netherlands by the core of ﬁve policy change models
In the autumn of 2004 the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment (VROM) funded a project of ours that examined the aftermath of the ﬁrework disaster that occurred in Enschede in 2000. Our principal conclusion was that the situation regarding legal ﬁreworks had become considerably safer in the period 2000-2005, throughout the entire process chain, comprising manufacture, import, transport, storage and the use of ﬁreworks. A signiﬁcant side-effect occurred, however, that occasioned the second main conclusion: The policy in respect of recognized ﬁrework companies is so harsh as to have created a signiﬁcant incentive for illegality and criminality. This gives reason to doubt whether, on balance, matters have indeed become safer.