A blue-ribbon team writing for the U.S. Institute of Education Sciences describes a significant challenge that students face:
Psychological research has documented the fact that accurately assessing one’s own degree of learning is not something that comes naturally to our species, and fostering this ability is a useful, albeit neglected, component of education . . . Unfortunately, people at all grade levels, from the youngest children through advanced college students, experience failures of metacognition and illusions of knowing in which they think they know something but do not. (Pashler et al., 2007, pp. 1, 24)
Our studies add two further challenges to the challenge of the illusion of knowing. First, quite accomplished learners-university undergraduates-engage study tactics that deviate significantly from what research indicates to be effective approaches to learning (Winne & Jamieson-Noel, 2003). Second, these same relatively sophisticated learners appear quite unaware about how they study (Jamieson-Noel & Winne, 2003; Winne & Jamieson-Noel, 2002).