Effective Implementation of Metacognition
Metacognition can be described as “a critical analysis of thought,” “knowledge and cognition about cognitive phenomena” (Flavell, 1979), or simply “thinking about thinking.” It can focus on any aspect of cognition, even metacognition itself (Dunlosky, Serra, Matvey, & Rawson, 2005; Nelson & Narens, 1994). Metacognition has typically been conceptualized as involving one or more of the following aspects of a cognitive process: knowledge about that process, the monitoring of that process, and the control of that process. When optimized, these aspects of metacognition can augment performance of the target cognition, including students’ learning (Azevedo & Cromley, 2004; Winne, 1995). For this reason, many researchers have sought to train students to engage in metacognitive thinking to improve their learning (e.g., White & Frederiksen, 1998).