Planning and the Just City
The profession of city planning was born of a vision of the good city. Its roots lie in the nineteenth-century radicalism of Ebenezer Howard and his associates, in Baron Haussmann’s conception of creative destruction, and in the more conventional ideas of the urban progressives in the United States and their technocratic European counterparts. While the three approaches differed in their orientation toward democracy, in their content, and in their distributional outcomes, they all had their start in a revulsion at the chaotic and unhealthful character of the industrial city. Their common purpose was to achieve efficiency, order, and beauty through the imposition of reason (Scott 1998).