Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs (CGCP): A Developmental Approach for Professional School Counseling
Professional school counseling has evolved in response to national, economic, and education reform crises (e.g., the Cold War); societal needs (e.g., the need for capable, competent, prepared workers); national policy initiatives (e.g., literacy, mathematics, and achievement in science); economic trends (e.g., poverty and economic downturns); and school reform initiatives (e.g., A Nation at Risk [National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983] and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001). Professional school counseling has gone through three distinct phases (Gysbers & Henderson, 2001; Herr, 2001). From the turn of the century to the 1950s, the initial phase was essentially a “position” approach that concentrated on vocational and career information to prepare high school students for jobs and careers (Gysbers & Henderson, 2001). Today, with the evolution of the “portfolio” worker, career preparation is often tenuous at best as markets become more global and a career in the traditional sense of the word no longer exists.