The Evolution of Accountability: Three Current Models of Program Evaluation to Close the Achievement Gaps Among All Students, Including Minority Students and Children of Poverty
For nearly half a century, the association of social and economic disadvantage with a students and the achievement gap has been well known to economists, sociologists, and educators. Most, however, have avoided the obvious implication of this understanding-raising the achievement of lower-class children requires amelioration of the social and economic conditions of their lives, not just school reform. Today’s information economy demands more education and higher levels of skills and knowledge for employment than ever before in history. Children on the lower end of the achievement gap without adequate skills, knowledge, and education have little chance for economic well-being in this country. When a quality education is denied to children at birth because of their parents’ skin color or income, it is not only bad social policy, it is immoral.