chapter  8
24 Pages

Special Programs for Academically Disenfranchised Students: Promoting Achievement and Advancement of First-Generation College and University


In the early 1980s, seminal and controversial educational reform reports on the state of American education by the National Commission on Excellence in Education (1983), the Carnegie Foundation for the Advanced of Teaching (Boyer, 1983), and the National Association of Secondary School Principals, in collaboration with the Commission on Educational Issues of the National Association of Independent Schools (Sizer, 1984), all vehemently called for educational reform and greater accountability of student achievement and teacher effectiveness. In the wake of the national movement toward standards-based reform, professional school counselors were not viewed as an integral part of the most recent systematic national initiative, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB).