On the convergence and divergence of economies
The central question that this chapter seeks to address is whether the economic growth process, within and between countries, has tended to produce convergence or divergence (or no general pattern). These questions were at the heart of Anita’s interests and research. The chapter begins in section 2 by considering the diﬀerent perceptions (and predictions) relating to convergence or divergence between nations (in terms of economic development as expressed in measures such as GDP per capita). The discussion in this section includes consideration of the measurement of convergence and divergence. Section 3 seeks to survey the empirical work on convergence and divergence. Finally, section 4 summarises and concludes.