Aerodynamic research at the Nationaal Luchtvaartlaboratorium (NLL) in Amsterdam under German occupation during World War II
Shortly after the invasion of The Netherlands by Nazi Germany in May 1940 the most important Dutch aerodynamic research establishment, the Nationaal Luchtvaartlaboratorium (NLL) in Amsterdam, came under the administrative control of the Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt Göttingen (AVA). What kind of impact did the occupation have on the development of the NLL? In what ways did Dutch scientists contribute to the war effort of Nazi Germany? How did the occupation policy affect the economic development of the NLL, its staff and scientiﬁ c research? What strategies were used by the occupying power to make the Dutch scientists collaborate? How did the German scientists ensure that war-relevant knowledge was kept secret? Was there any resistance? Are there speciﬁ c periods to be identiﬁ ed in the relations of Germans scientists in charge of the NLL and with regard to the repression of resistance?