chapter  14
The EU regulatory system for GMOs
ByGREGORY C. SHAFFER, MARK A. POLLACK
Pages 26

The regulation of genetically modified (GM) foods and seeds in the European Union (EU) exemplifies the challenge of European multilevel governance in the area of risk regulation, an area which covers multiple policy domains, ranging from internal market and external trade promotion, science, research and development coordination, to environmental and consumer protection. On the one hand, regulatory power in this area has become increasingly centralised at the EU level. On the other hand, the European Commission’s authority has constantly been challenged within the EU and abroad, respectively by the EU Member States and their constituents, as well as the United States and a number of other agricultural exporting nations, using the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO) as leverage. Such pressures have called into question the legitimacy of EU policy making itself in this area.