AGROWING BODY of empirical research documentsimportant links between trauma exposure and physical health problems (e.g., Kendall-Tackett, 2004). This research has done much to improve interventions for trauma survivors; yet, to date, much of the research in this area has focused on women and women’s health. Several recent studies highlight the need to consider applying a gender lens to this literature to set an agenda for future research and practice. The aim of this chapter is to review research on trauma and primary care using such a gender lens. I provide recommendations for research and practice that stem from complex definitions of gender and an appreciation of both gender similarity and difference among trauma survivors.