Turkey is an independent republic, founded in 1923, occupying a region partly in Europe and partly in Asia. It plays a major role in world history as the crossroad of civilizations and the bridge connecting East and West. This chapter focuses on performance management system (PMS) is a relatively new concept in Turkey, the development of human resource management (HRM). Since there is a paucity of research in Turkey about the implementation of PMS, the specific findings of a few studies on HRM will be communicated. The comprehensive survey of HRM carried out by Arthur Andersen demonstrates the changes in HRM practices of private sector organizations in Turkey over time. Performance-based rewards and promotions have brought dynamism to organizations in Turkey, where wage determination and promotion was decided solely on the basis of organizational seniority until the 1980s. In the hierarchical societal and organizational culture of Turkey, even though superiors may ask opinions of subordinates, the decisions are taken unilaterally.