This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book explores where the similarities exist, and where the differences/uniqueness endure, and helps to understand how these findings can help guide multinational enterprises in setting up effective performance management systems (PMS) across the globe. The discussion of specific programs begins with a description of PMSs in the United States. The book deals with issues in the field of PM that, arguably, affect everyone, regardless of where they are doing business and focuses on the basic issue of employee motivation. It examines potential sources of bias, and proposes how two constructs–interpersonal affect and leader-member exchange–might be sources of that bias. The book argues that issues and questions from the scholarly side of the field, which need to be addressed when discussing practical programs.