This chapter examines the concept of motivation and links it to performance management (PM). PM practices are changes that can be directed at the individual, team, unit, or organizational level of analysis. There are a variety of PM techniques such as training, feedback in the forms of knowledge- of-results and performance appraisal, goal-setting, and, finally, incentives. The chapter details motivation and introduces a model of motivation. Motivation is the process of allocating one's energy to actions or tasks. Motivation is about the level of effort one imparts to the job, how that effort is allocated across actions or tasks, and the persistence over time of that effort allocation. Many motivation researchers have associated motivation with three general processes. These processes are an arousal component, a directional component, and an intensity component. More specifically, the motivation process is a resource allocation process, whereby the resources are a person's time and effort, which come from the Energy Pool.