chapter  7
Performance management in the United States
WithELAINE D. PULAKOS, ROSE A. MUELLER-HANSON, RYAN S. O'LEARY
Pages 18

This chapter describes general trends and factors that impact the vast majority of Performance Management Systems (PMS) in the United States (US). It deals with a brief summary of the socioeconomic and political factors that have shaped how PM is conducted in the US. The chapter discusses key factors and challenges that impact the vast majority of PMSs in the US. Three key factors have had a particularly strong impact: a focus on results, automation, and the legal environment. The strong individualistic nature of US culture is manifested in PMSs as a conviction that employees ought to be evaluated on their individual performance and contributions. The value of results and their use to drive performance has been a cornerstone of many performance management trends, such as Management by Objectives systems that were popular in 1970s. Organizations need to consider this reality in design of their systems to encourage and hold managers accountable for effectively managing the performance of their employees.