The American Association of Suicidology (AAS) serves as an international umbrella organization for survivor services. Founded in 1968, AAS was the ﬁ rst national organization to offer survivor services. It was through the AAS annual conference that many of the survivor pioneers (LaRita Archibald, Iris Bolton, Betsy Ross, Adina Wrobleski, Marilyn Koenig, Karen Maxim, and Stephanie Weber) met in the 1980s. Although the ﬁ rst AAS conferences they attended included no workshops for survivors, by 1986, several were available. In 1989, the ﬁ rst Healing After Suicide (HAS) conference was held. Also in 1989, the Survivor Division was formed. The newsletter Surviving Suicide began publication that same year.