chapter  35
12 Pages

Globalization, Education Governance, and Citizenship Regimes: New Democratic Defi cits and Social Injustices

BySUSAN L. ROBERTSON

In the past two decades, education systems1 around the globe have undergone dramatic changes. In large part this is because of changes within and between nation-states, as the stakes increase in the competitive race between nations and regions in the global economy (cf. Cerny, 1997; Held, McGrew, Perraton, & Dicken, 1999). It is also because there has been a reconceptualization of the role of education across the developed and developing world: on the one hand, to tie education more closely to the economy in order to drive economic growth; and on the other, to develop the formal education sectors in such a way that they directly generate income for institutions, national economies, and for-profi t fi rms who are moving into providing services in particular sectors.