Ecological psychology and task representativeness: implications for the design of perceptual-motor training programmes in sport
Two of the most popular experimental paradigms in this research area include spatial and temporal occlusion techniques (Williams, Davids and Williams, 1999). In spatial occlusion, body parts of a projected opponent are concealed to prevent the pickup of different informational variables (e.g. Müller, Abernethy and Farrow, 2006). In temporal occlusion paradigms, video footage of an action is edited to terminate the display at critical moments (e.g., foot-ball contact in the football penalty kick) requiring participants to anticipate performance with varying degrees of information (e.g., McMorris and Colenso, 1996). Typically, these studies have reported that experts are significantly better at anticipating performance outcomes of projected footage than novices, a finding which is exacerbated under impoverished information conditions such as temporal occlusion prior to foot-ball contact (Abernethy, 1991; Starkes et al., 2001; Williams et al., 1999).