Upper extremity injuries
Upper extremity injuries pervade sports and recreational activities, particularly those that involve overhead activities such as throwing. Likewise, injuries to the upper extremity frequently happen in contact sports and with falls on an outstretched hand. Here, we narrow the focus to biomechanical concepts related to overhead activities (e.g., throwing and swimming) and link those concepts to risk of upper extremity injury. We elaborate on the common mechanisms of injury in the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, humerus, radius, and ulna – including acute and chronic/overuse injuries.