Modelling and simulation of tissue load in the upper extremities
Biomechanical analyses of the upper extremities are at a comparatively early stage compared to other regional investigations, including gait and low back biomechanics. However, upper extremity use pervades life in the modern world as a prerequisite for nearly all commonly performed activities, including reaching, grasping, tool use, machine operation, typing and athletics. Such a crucial role demands systematic study of arm use. This chapter highlights methods used to analyze tissue loads in the shoulder, elbow and wrist.