Service members, of whatever service branch, begin life as civilians. ey are born, develop, and educated, most likely within a civilian milieu. At some point in life they make a decision to enter the military. e reasons for this are personal to the individual; however, when they are sworn into the military they become integral parts of a team. For some, teamwork is something they have experienced throughout life; they have been part of a family team, a sibling team, a team of friends, sports or academic teams, and now a military team. For others, being part of a team is a new and unusual experience. For experienced team members, team rules and structure are familiar friends. For novices, a great deal of education must occur to help them attain team awareness, team familiarity, and nally “teamhood” (i.e., membership in the group). is is accomplished through athletic exercises, competitions between individuals and groups, direct instruction, or group encounters and learning to overcome stressful encounters. It is also inculcated via aphorisms, mottos, and calls to tradition; for example, Army recruits are taught to recite the Warrior’s Creed:
e values, training, culture, and ethos of the military are well described throughout this volume. Our goal in this chapter is to describe a specic cognitive-behavioral psychotherapeutic treatment model that has been developed and used with a broad range of clinical populations and clinical problems and in a range of settings and situations. We rst oer a brief introduction to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and then discuss assessment, treatment conceptualization, and treatment planning. e next part addresses specic
cognitive, aective, behavioral, and situational factors. Finally, we oer a clinical example and a summary of the multiple problems encountered by returning service members.