Tennis play simulator 1: Psychomotor predispositions for tennis based on locomotor movements
Our study in table tennis (Lapszo, 1998) showed a strong correlation between the speed of ball-hitting movements, anticipation and behavioural ﬂuctuations tested in simulatory conditions with sporting results. On the basis of these ﬁndings we have developed a universal measurement system (Lapszo, 2002) which enables the testing of psychomotor eﬃciency in racket sports and ball games on the basis of fundamental and speciﬁc movement speed. In this study we present the application of the system to diagnose psychomotor eﬃciency in tennis. In a game of tennis we can diﬀerentiate between the locomotion used to hit the ball and locomotion after ball-hitting. These locomotor events have the character of fundamental movements for ballhitting. The movements are often called by coaches ‘foot work’. The speed of locomotor movements is related to ball-ﬂight anticipation. This anticipation consists of predicting the position towards which the ball is ﬂying and the execution of a movement to reach this position. In real play, anticipation is demonstrated by initiating the displacement of the body on the basis of how the opponent has hit the ball or from the early phase of the ball’s path. This information we have called anticipatory stimulus which indirectly indicates the place towards which the ball is ﬂying. The middle and ﬁnal phase of the ball’s path, directly indicating the spot, where the ball is ﬂying was called an orientation stimulus. In our experiment the locomotor movements were initiated by anticipatory and orientation stimuli and were called anticipatory and orientation locomotor movements respectively. Ball-ﬂight anticipation is based on anticipatory schema (Lapszo, 2000; Schmidt, 1975), which constitute the memorized relationships of the ways in which the ball was struck by the opponent and the places where the ball bounced on the tennis court. Creating the anticipatory schema in memory takes place in the learning process which inﬂuence behavioral ﬂuctuations caused by variations in attention concentration, motivation, arousal and resistance for disturbances (Hull, 1942). These ﬂuctuations determine the regularity in the learning process of anticipatory schema (Lapszo, 1998). The ability to react quickly and accurately in competitive conditions (play for points) seems also to
The aim of the research is to verify whether the developed universal diagnostic and training system (Lapszo, 2002) can be used to test the psychomotor predispositions speciﬁc to tennis on the basis of fundamental locomotor movements.