After a closer examination of the Chinese communities in Indonesia, peninsular Malaysia, New York, and Los Angeles, it is necessary to return to the initial questions and the hypotheses to see if the case studies help untangle the puzzle. The starting point for this study was the observation that for Chinese communities overseas, levels of political participation are not correlated with socioeconomic variables such as income or education. In addition, Chinese overseas exact political influence in places where political institutions are least receptive to Chinese communal participation. The questions that were posed to address these puzzles were as follows: When or under what conditions do Chinese communities become active in the political processes of their adopted countries? Does political influence stem from group mobilization? And what role do communal organizations and their leaders play in determining the nature and scope of participation and influence?