Developments in the internationalisation of higher education have accelerated noticeably during the last three decades. Internationalisation by universities refl ects institutional responses to globalization (Knight 2004) and can be considered as an economical imperative as much as it is a lofty ideal. However, not all institutions share the same view or regard internationalisation as a ‘whole of institution’ imperative, or a risk-free venture (Knight 2007). Today the term applies to a range of activities-the fl ow of staff and students across national borders in international and transnational programs, curriculum extension and renewal, mechanisms for maintaining academic standards and quality assurance, the development of regional agreements for the recognition of higher education programs, and alliances for advancement of research (Hamilton 1997). Ultimately, the underlying reasons for internationalisation of universities relate to relevance and survival.