chapter  4
14 Pages

Nordic activation reforms in a European context: a distinct universalistic model?


This chapter argues that recent reforms in social protection have led to a significant shift in social citizenship for people on the margins of the labour market. After 1990 all the Nordic countries – Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden – introduced changes in policy and legislation to strengthen the integration of unemployed people into the regular labour market. These changes have redefined the relationship between rights and duties for unemployed citizens, in the interest of promoting active citizenship in the socio-liberal sense (Chapter 3).