chapter  12
From ‘heroes’ to ‘troublemakers’? Civil society and democratization in Indonesia
Pages 19

Following the third wave of democratization around the globe, concepts relating to civil society have been intensively discussed and debated. Regarded as a cure for the ills of state-led modernization, civil society has attracted international acclaim as the winning ‘idea of the late twentieth century’ (Khilnani 2001: 11). However, theorists have disagreed as to whether or not civil society can be treated as a distinct and specific area of analysis. Some have argued that civil society occupies a distinct space or inhabits the ‘third sphere’ comprising non-state and non-commercial groups – located somewhere between state and family – influencing the structure and rules of the political game. Other observers claim that civil society is part of the state as its existence depends on political – legal frameworks which can only be provided by the state.