This chapter addresses the state of things concerning the development of welfare markets in old-age provision across the four countries under study in this book. The fi rst section illustrates where and in which forms markets matter in the institutional design of old-age provision as it has taken shape in the new millennium. Drawing on the wider literature (part of which is cited throughout), this section includes a short historical account and a brief presentation of the ‘welfare mix’ in both pensions and care systems. The purpose of the chapter is not to burden the readership with detail upon detail of, for example, tax regulations, benefi t calculation formulae, or detailed fi gures on (evolutions in) payments, and service delivery. Rather, it aims at picturing core structures of the systems to profi le their overall character. This also applies to the second section retracing current dynamics in the role and organization of welfare markets, with the focus being set on market trends, evolving regulations, and major topics in the public debate. This section draws on a number of interviews with experts and more recently issued specialist media.1 The presentation is divided into country-reports and subsections for pension provision and elderly care.