chapter  21
Heather J. Gibson, Cynthia Willming and Andrew Holdnak SMALL - SCALE EVENT SPORT TOURISM : FANS A S TOURISTS
Pages 16

While there have been numerous studies over the years about fans, these have generally focused on the meanings and identities associated with being a fan (Anderson, 1979; McPherson, 1975; Wann & Branscombe, 1993), or in the case of the UK, football hooliganism (Dunning, 1990; Ingham, 1978; Maguire, 1986). However, few researchers have examined the sports fan in the context of sport tourism. Indeed, the use of college sport as a community tourist attraction in the US has received scant attention (Irwin & Sandler, 1998). College-sports events have the potential to increase city revenue and community spirit, while increasing traveler’s awareness of the local community (Garnham, 1996; Higham, 1999; Irwin & Sandler, 1998; Walo, Bull, & Breen, 1996). This paper

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Much of the existing literature on event sport tourism has focused on mega or hallmark events. The term hallmark event refers to “major fairs, expositions, cultural, and sporting events of international status which are held on either a regular or one time basis” (Hall, 1989, p. 263). Hallmark events are generally thought to help position a host city as an international-tourist destination and facilitate touristic activity in the years following the event (Hall, 1992b; Ritchie, 1984). While some of the literature has characterized the impacts of hallmark events as positive (Gratton, Shibli, & Dobson, 2000; Ritchie & Smith, 1991), scholars have recognized the downsides associated with these events (Matzitelli, 1989; Hall & Hodges, 1996; Orams & Brons, 1999; Ritchie, 1999). Roche (1994) argued that mega events tend to be short lived but have long-term consequences for a community that may not always be positive. Other scholars argue that hallmark events frequently result in huge debts for host communities (Roberts & McLeod, 1989; Whitson & Macintosh, 1993), possible corruption during the bid process (Jennings, 1996), and frequently lead to the displacement of local residents because of new infrastructural improvements (Hall & Hodges, 1996; Hiller, 1998; Olds, 1998).