chapter  4
7 Pages

The thinkers of the total: Ernst Ju¨nger, Carl Schmitt and Erich Ludendorff

From 1930 to 1935, three German authors apply the concept of the ‘total’ to

the sphere of the political in some way. Ernst Ju¨nger speaks of a ‘total

mobilisation’, Carl Schmitt of a ‘total state’ and Erich Ludendorff of

‘total war’. Although application of the concept of totality might be under-

stood as merely a station on the path to the totalitarian, such characterisation

would scarcely do justice to the authors and their work.