Anti-Americanism: Seeing Ourselves in the Mirror of the United States
Introduction e proclamation of the Bush Doctrine and the unilateral exercise of force by the United States seem to have unleashed viral anti-Americanism worldwide. Yet anti-Americanism is more dicult to isolate and culture than this popular explanation would suggest.1 What does it mean to be anti-American? Clearly, to be critical of the United States, its leaders, its policies, its economy, its society, or its culture is not sucient to capture the taken-for-granted meaning of anti-Americanism. Most citizens and residents of the United States, at one time or another, are critical of one or more of these dimensions of public life, but this kind of criticism is not usually considered anti-American. e few times it has been have been periods of great stress in the American social and political fabric, where the meaning of citizen loyalty has been narrowed to exclude sustained criticism. ese periods historically have been the exception rather than the rule.