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other ofthe MI.SU.GI

After various hex-breaking activities, she recites the incantation "Evil impurity, witchcraft, sin, anger of the god, terror of the dead, the wickedness of mankind, remove (all) that! ,,57 Although the Hittites possessed other male and female ritual practitioners and physician-priests, it was the work of the MI.SU.GI which was most frequently called upon by society. 58

From the Hittite royal archives found at Boghazkoy also comes evidence of the correspondence carried on between "Naptera" (= Nefertari), the Great Royal Wife of Ramesses II, and "Petkhep" (= Pudul].epa) of Hattiland. After Rarnesses and Ijattusili (then serving his brother, the king Muwatalli) fought one another over Syrian hegemony at the battle ofKadesh (ca. 1286/85) with the Egyptian army only narrowly escaping an ignominious defeat at the hands of the Hittites, the two nations sought to come to agreement by treaty (ca. 1271) rather than through clash of arms. As usual, the agreements of nations were sealed "with a kiss"-by the exchange of appropriate females. In this case, M3cT-HR-NFRW-Rc ("Justice is the beautiful face of God (Re)"), the daughter ofPudul].epa and Ij:attusili was given to Ramesses as a wife, and the letters (I<Bo I 29; I<Bo I 21?) passing between to the two queens seem related to this occasion.59 As was noted in the correspondence between Sibtu and Zimri-Lim, the head wife has little concern over the double standard which provides her husband with many wives as a political matter of course. Nefertari writes in response to Pudul].epa's routine inquiry over her health, and speaks of the "good brotherhood" which Re, the Sungod, will give to Ij:attusili and Ramesses. For her own part, she says "And I am at peace and sisterly with the great queen, my sister; I, now (and forever).,,6o

Along with these treaty texts comes an interesting reflection of the "gender" question regarding deities. The Egyptian copy of "Hittite treaty" contains a notice describing the seal ofPudul].epa which the treaty bears. The Egyptian scribe wrote

This is actually an excellent description ofPudul].epa's seal, known to us from other archaeological finds, but it seems clear that the Egyptian scribe, undoubtedly male, felt some confusion. In Egypt, the solar deity was clearly male, yet in Ijatti, a different gender tradition about this deity obtains. While the scribe has dutifully described the goddess who clasps Pudu1}epa, he has had trouble incorporating this female deity into his traditional theological language, choosing instead to translate by using the typical solar disc hieroglyph which stands for Re. While some scholars argue that this means that the hieroglyph must therefore carry an androgynous meaning, it also seems likely that the scribe, even while recording the outlandish Hittite view, reinforced his notion that the solar deity

was male. That the disputes over appropriate gender designations for deity began at least as early as the Late Bronze Age should afford modern persons engaged in that struggle some comfort: obviously, these are not easy questions to decide.